Some people believe in having good characters for the sake of creating good consequences. But what if we reversed that and cared about promoting the best consequences because to do so would be virtuous. Could one be simultaneously a Stoic and a utilitarian? Also can one be a utilitarian for the sake of virtue?
Well, I think it would all depend on how you define virtue. One of the key virtues that helps you morally interact with the rest of humanity is justice. I suppose that a Stoic could just forego the word justice, as a virtue, and replace it with utilitarianism. So instead of having a good justice virtue, you’d have a good utilitarian virtue.
It’s kind of hard to understand all what is entailed in Stoic justice. Usually an act of compassion, empathy, fairness, equal distribution of resources. But suppose we replaced that with the virtue utilitarianism? What would that entail? Well, what things would a Stoic want to promote for individuals? Perhaps preferred indifferents!
A Stoic utilitarian might want to maximize the greatest amount of preferred indifferents for the most amount of people. What are some preferred indifferents? Wealth, health, reputation, pleasure, and education. So a Stoic would try to help a person maximize these particular preferred indifferents. So to increase people’s health, you should donate blood. To increase people’s reputation, you’d want to say good things about them to others if they’re behaving well.
Would a Stoic utilitarian try to maximize the greatest amount of virtue in others? Only if people will listen. Education in virtue requires not only you to teach it but the other person to learn it. If there is a lot of unwillingness of the other person to learn, then it’s going to be difficult to teach virtue to another person. So it’s probably more realistic in everyday life to focus on helping people maximize their preferred indifferents.
So let’s review. What would a Stoic utilitarian be? A Stoic who tries to increase their own virtues such as wisdom, courage, temperance, and utilitarianism (instead of justice). How does a Stoic utilitarian act on their utilitarian virtue? By helping others maximize their preferred indifferents, also help them maximize their virtue if possible.